John Wiley and sons publications. Ultra Enhanced Indonesian (uei) Ace Enhanced Kratom de Vries N. De Flora S. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry supplement 17F: 270-277. Genetic alterations and DNA repair in human carcinogenesis. Safety issues in herbal medicines: implications for the health professions.
Ethnopharmacology of kratom and the Mitragyna alkaloids. Caspase-independent pathways of hair cell death induced by kanamycin in vivo. Cell Death Diff. Participation of p53 protein in the cellular response to DNA damage. Cancer Research 51:6304-6311.
Laser capture microdissection Ultra Enhanced Indonesian (uei) Ace Enhanced Kratom microarrays and the precise definition of a cancer cell. H-mitragynine from Mitragyna speciosa in Thailand. Planta Medica 60: 580581. Mutational specificity of aflatoxin
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B1. Comparison of in vivo hostmediated assay with in vitro S9 metabolic activation.
P14ARF induces G2 cell cycle arrest in p53-and p21-deficient cells by down-regulating p34cdc2 kinase activity. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:7118-7130. A long twentieth century of the cell cycle and beyond. Cell 100 :71 – 78 Odaka C.
The main target system of MSE and MIT cytotoxicity is the central nervous system as shown by sensitivity of neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) throughout the studies. In general MSE and to a lesser extent MIT were found to exert their dose dependant cytotoxicity effects in all human cell lines examined both in acute treatment and also in the longer term as assessed by the clonogenicity assay. M arrest for HEK 293 cells. MIT has a lesser effect and cells arrest mainly at G1 phase in SH-SY5Y cells.
Values are the mean of quadruplet cultures of MSE experiment and duplicate cultures of MIT experiment. Bars are SEM. ANOVA red riau kratom forum with Dunnet post test. IC50 values (Inhibition concentration that caused 50% cell death) of 24 hr treatment with MSE and MIT treated cell lines. The values were interpolated from Ultra Enhanced Indonesian (uei) Ace Enhanced Kratom percentage dead cells curves obtained from the Trypan blue exclusion experiments. MIT (Molar) 7.
WAF 1 is a p53 target gene and both are well known to Ultra Enhanced Indonesian (uei) Ace Enhanced Kratom have positive correlation with cell cycle
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arrest (Morgan 2007; Harper et al 1993). Based on the literature it was well known that p53 has the ability to induce G1 arrest and its target gene p21 facilitates the arrest (Ko and Prives 1996) by inhibiting the function of CDKs (Gu et al 1993; Harper et al 1993). Therefore the role of p53 and p21 in MSE and MIT induced toxicity were examined. However in the present studies the cell cycle kratom tea instructions arrest noted appeared to be independent of induction of p53 and p21.
Life Sciences 74: 2143-2155. Detection of carcinogens as mutagens: Bacterial tester strains with R factor plasmids. PNAS 72: 979-983.
There is another interesting finding to note apart from the toxicology implications of MSE and MIT as discussed above. M) stimulate cells to proliferate in most of the
human cell lines examined. Thus this finding may support the pharmacology of the Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves which produce stimulation effects when consumed at low doses. The stimulation effects claimed at low doses are based on anecdotal reports from users however the specific clinical pharmacology and controlled dosage for humans is still poorly understood.