The American Journal of Addiction 16: 352-356. E McCurdy C. Self-treatment of opioid widrawal using kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth).
De Flora S. Mitragyna Speciosa Korth Plant Chattahoochee journal of Cellular Biochemistry supplement 17F: 270-277. Genetic alterations and DNA repair in human
carcinogenesis. Safety issues in herbal medicines: implications for the health professions.
Propagation is by very fresh seed or cuttings. There is a low strike rate due to a fungus which attacks xylem tissue. There is only little known about growing kratom. Seeds and cuttings are very hard to find. Kratom cuttings are considered somewhat difficult to grow though the plants themselves once established are relatively hardy. Because of the difficulty in getting cuttings to root many people are experimenting with cloning.
Cell viability was assessed as routine Trypan blue Mitragyna Speciosa Korth Plant Chattahoochee exclusion procedure kratom 2013 described in section 2. Analysis of MSE using UV-VIS spectrometer A UV-VIS spectrometer (WPA Lightwave II) was utilised for estimating the MIT content in the MSE fraction samples by measuring UV spectral characteristics of MIT. Using pure MIT referral compound the UV spectrum exhibited a maximum absorbance at 227 nm –
- This finding is consistent with the result of the previous flow cytometry analysis with PI staining performed in chapter 4 section 4
- MIT-like compound Average percentage of MIT-like compound in 24 ml MSE sample (0
- UCSF finding could lead to long-sought alternative to morphine
- Clinical Cancer Research 11: 3155-3162
- Dose selection for the Viability and Mutant Frequency (MF) plating were chosen based on the RSG calculation as described in section 3
- From these estimates it appears that the SH-SY5Y cells are the most sensitive of those examined to the cytotoxic and possibly cytostatic effect of MSE
- M arrest for HEK 293 cells
. A standard curve for MIT was generated (Fig. The absorbance reading for each MSE fraction at 227 nm wavelength was recorded. Using the equation derived from the MIT standard curve an estimation of MIT present in each MSE fraction was calculated (refer to Appendix 1 for details of calculations).
PNAS 92: 8493-8497. Mechanism of taxol-induced apoptosis in human SKOV3 ovariancarcinoma cells. The cell cycle and programme cell death.
M phase cells was noted for all doses compared to control cells for the first 24 hr treatment period. However there were no apparent DNA profile changes seen for the 48 hr treatment group. The percentage of subG1 population unfortunately was not determined during the analysis and the evaluation of this population was qualitative. MSE for 48 hr time period (Fig. MSE the cells in the G1 phase appeared to decrease but the overall profile was considerably altered.
This phenomenon creates disadvantages for this assay as when the whole FACS profile shifts to the right side of the scale the determination of the stages of cell death is difficult to interpret as the cells are no longer located in specific quadrants. This observation is clearly in contrast with the previous cytological examinations which indicated that SH-SY5Y cells treated with high dose of MSE undergo apoptosis kratom high dose rather than necrosis. The right shifting phenomenon for MIT kratom tea boston treated cells observed in fig.
Therefore to further determine whether p21 is Mitragyna Speciosa Korth Plant Chattahoochee positively linked with p53 in response to MSE or MIT we examined p21 levels using immunoblots. The quantitation of p21 protein is described in section 4. There was a clear up regulation of p21 protein seen for the control group at 24 and 48 hours consistent with the upregulation of p53 noted earlier. MSE at any time point. This finding supports the previous p53 results. Parallel experiments were carried out to assess the effects of MIT on the expression of p21 protein.
Either: kratom withdrawal 36 hours a definite increase in mean total MF of at least 300 x 10-6 (and at least 40% are small colonies). Or: an increase of small colony MF of at least 150 x 10-6 above the concurrent vehicle control. The test compound is regarded negative if the MF is less than the sum of the mean control mutation frequency plus the GEF. The test compound is regarded positive if the MF of any test concentration exceeds the sum of the mean control mutation frequency plus the GEF and there was a concentration dependent increase in MF. Mouse lymphoma cells in this assay were exposed to the MSE or MIT both with or without metabolic activation system Arochlor 1254 induced rat liver S9 for at least 2 days and sub cultured to determine cytotoxicity and also to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring the relative total growth (RTG) of the cultures after the treatment period.