Although the safety and efficacy of most of the traditional medicines for human use are yet to be thoroughly investigated people still turn to its use due to its availability. In Malaysia one of the pytopharmaceutical sources with unique therapeutic properties is Mitragyna speciosa Korth. The leaves of this plant have been used traditionally as a stimulant and have been reported to be effective as an opium substitute antidiarrhea antitussive and antidepression (Shellard 1974; Suwarnlet 1976; Kumarnsit et al 2007). Kratom Legal High Forum Hemet recent findings on the congener of mitragynine (the major alkaloid of this plant) 7-hydroxymitragynine which has been suggested to be an active principle producing potent antinociceptive (analgesic) effect (Matsumoto et al 2004) has made this plant a promising alternative source for pain management therapy. Since little is known of the potential toxicity of this plant this study assessing the in vitro potential of cytotoxicity will serve as a safety database for the plant. Drug discovery from Kratom Legal High Forum Hemet plants and the central nervous system Plants have a long history as a source of drugs for treating human diseases (Chin et al 2006). Some of the well-known plants first reported to have such use include licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) myrrh kratom withdrawal loperamide (Commiphora species) and poppy capsule latex (Papaver somniferum).
Kratom is a rather unique drug in that a low to moderate dose will usually (but not always) be stimulating while a high dose is almost always quite sedating. This is apparently kratom infusion forum because the active alkaloids have both stimulant and sedative effects. Which predominates probably depends both on blood level and individual differences between users.
Those who use this as an alternative medicine report few side effects and seldom report any issues other then mild stomach complaints. The leaves of the Mitragyna Speciosa tree have medicinal properties capable of acting as a stimulant at low doses and as a pain reliever at higher doses. This herbal remedy has been used for thousands of years to relieve anything from a toothache to feelings of fatigue. A stronger mixture of this herb can induce feelings of
euphoria and peacefulness. Legal in most countries outside of Thailand this traditional herbal leaf medicine is most often taken as tea.
They were ground with the special plant grinder at IMR. The powdered form of the leaves was kept in an air tight container in a dry room to avoid humidity. Extraction using organic solvent (modification of Houghton and Ikram Method 1986) About 500 g of dried powdered leaves were soaked in 2 L of methanol for about 3 days.
Suwarnlet (1975) in his report also mentioned the opioid abstinence syndrome such as irritability yawning rhinorrhoea myalgias diarrhoea and arthralgia. Recently major concern has arisen in Malaysia as the narcotism properties of this plant have attracted the misuse of it by
drug addicts as an opium substitute. Due to this an act was passed in 2004 (under the poison control act 1952) which makes the possession of any form of the plant by the public illegal.
Analysis of MSE and MIT using 1H-NMR 2. Digital photographs from the wound assay 2. Colony forming ability of treated cells (clonogenicity assay) 2.
Diagram showing the cross-talk of organelles during cell death. Cells can execute cell death via apoptosis or caspase- independent pathway (necrosislike PCD or apoptosis-like PCD). Kerr et al (1971 1972) introduced the concept of apoptosis (Zong and Thompson 2006).
Chemical constituents of the plant 1. Biological activity of this is kratom safe to use plant Xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity The cell cycle 1. Review of the cell cycle 1.
The level of cylins in the cell rise and fall depending on the stages of cell cycle however the Cdk level is normally constant and higher than cylins. As shown if fig. Cdks complexes also rise and fall depending on the levels of cyclins. S-Cdks complexes trigger cells to enter cell division at Start checkpoint in the late G1 phase followed by activation of S-Cdk complexes which initiate the cell
to undergo DNA replication (S phase). M checkpoint and assembly of mitotic spindle. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is then activated to complete the mitosis events (anaphase to metaphase transition) in which it causes the destruction of S indonesian kratom leaf and M cylins thus deactivation of Cdks leading to completion of mitosis and cytokinesis.
An in vitro test with cytogenetic evaluation of chromosomal damage with mammalian cells (e. Mammalian aberration Kratom Legal High Forum Hemet test) or an in vitro mouse lymphoma tk gene mutation assay. An in vivo test for Kratom Legal High Forum Hemet chromosomal damage using rodent hematopoietic cells (e. Recently the use of this battery of tests has been modified and new guidelines are about to be introduced in which two options of standard battery testing can be use instead of one.
Human lymphoblastoid- MCL-5 cells 4. SH-SY5Y cells 4. Effects of MSE and MIT on cell cycle proteins 4. Protein concentrations of the cell lysates 4. Effect of MSE and MIT on p53 protein levels 4. Chapter 4 4. Chapter 6 6.
It was Hooper who actually first isolated this alkaloid however the name mitragynine was given by Field who repeated its isolation in 1921 (Shellard 1974). MIT is structurally similar to yohimbine alkaloid as first determined by Zacharias et al in 1964 (Shellard 1974). Since then further chemistry and pharmacology investigations of this plant were continued and to date over 25 alkaloids have been isolated and chemically elucidated especially from the leaves of the young plant.