As a protease family caspases play an important role in initiation and execution of apoptosis therefore in vitro assessment using these enzymes as a marker of apoptosis is essential in apoptosis research (Lavrik et al 2005). Many commercial kits tailored to detect several important caspases such as Caspase 3 7 8 and 9 are readily available and most of them can either be analysed via flow cytometry fluorescence or even absorbance measurement. The assessment of p53 levels and its target gene p21 which are highly associated with apoptotic cell death can also be investigated using many in vitro approach such as immunoblotting (Western blot) fluorescence image cytometry etc (Mckenzie et al 1999).
During this phase DNA is synthesised from the original DNA template kratom capsule vendors (replication origins) to yield two DNA strands and duplication of chromosomes (sister chromatids) which involves protein synthesis and packaging of the DNA into chromosomes. Kratom Capsules Benefits Downey m phase) involves two important events the nuclear division (mitosis) and cell division (cytokinesis). M phase to another. There are four major phases involved in mitosis which are known as prophase (visible chromatin condensation) metaphase (aligning condensed chromatin in the middle of the cell) anaphase (separation of chromatin each to opposite pole of the cell) and telophase (a completion of cytokinesis in which two daughter cells each have a complete copy of the genome and the end stage of mitosis).
MIT was obtained from two sources; IMR Malaysia and from Japan. The young leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth were collected from the forest in Behrang Stesen Selangor Malaysia and were processed to obtain the methanolchloroform extract (MSE) at International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM). Trace amounts of MIT were obtained from Institute of Medical Research (IMR) Kuala Lumpur Malaysia and used as a reference sample.
The dosage for preparations using the dried leaf is 3 to 5 grams and less if smoked. Users of Kratom tend to be peasants laborers and farmers who use the plant to overcome the burdens of their hard work and meager existences. Female users are apparently quite rare. Age of usage onset seems to be higher than for other drugs. Some studies have found no addiction problems in villagers using Kratom while others apparently have. It seems likely that if used in doses high enough for mu receptor crossover (discussed below) addiction is a strong possibility.
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Effect of MSE and MIT on p53 protein levels 4. Chapter 4 4. Chapter 6 6.
Cell death 1. Various ways of cell death : Apoptosis vs necrosis Cell death represents an ultimate cycle for any living organism and the equilibrium between cell division and cell death is important in determining the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell death can either be part of normal physiological processes or abnormal pathological processes following endogenous or exogenous physical or chemical insults. Numerous studies have demonstrated various ways a cell can commit to their death. The most well studied types of cell death are programmed cell Kratom Capsules Benefits Downey death or apoptosis and necrosis.
Cell lines and culture conditions 2. Resuscitation of frozen cells 2. Cell quantification and viability 2. Preparation and analysis of methanol-chloroform extract of dea microgram kratom Mitragyna Kratom Capsules Benefits Downey speciosa Korth (MSE) 2.
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