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The tree is harvested from the wild for its wood and a dye which are used locally. Tropical Africa – Senegal to Sudan south to Zaire. Succeeds in full sun. Trees and Shrubs of the Sahel. Their Characteristics and Uses. A well-researched book usually with more than one photograph of each species and good information on the plant and its uses.
According to Greek mythology whenever he touched something it would turn to gold. When you take this extract turning into gold is exactly what will happen to you. Kratom leaves contain about 60% of active compounds and with this extract we have been able to filter out almost everything else making this the finest extract as of yet.
The crude methanol extract was re-dissolved in 300 ml chloroform and the mixture was transferred into a separating funnel. Four hundred (400 ml) of distilled water was added to the separating funnel and the mixture was shaken thoroughly then left to stand until two layers were formed. The bottom how to use kratom resin layer (organic layer) was collected and the upper layer (aqueous layer) was re-extracted with the chloroform again and this step was repeated three times. The collected organic layer was filtered through sodium sulphate anhydrous and the organic filtrate was further dried by rotary evaporator. The crude chloroform extract obtained appeared greasy and very dark green in colour.
Topoisomerase inhibitor compounds such as camptothecin and etoposide are the well known chemicals which cause strand break formation. Bacterial toxin for instance cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) produced by human E. DNA strand breaks (Friedberg et al 2006).
There are many more drugs derived from plants which are successfully established as pharmaceuticals which I have not covered in this section. Scientific research in phytopharmaceutical is on going and is growing rapidly especially in countries like Malaysia which have an abundance of natural resources. In spite of much activity on the chemistry and pharmacology of phytopharmaceuticals thorough investigations on their potential toxicology are lacking. Drew and Myers 1997).
Based upon my estimation of 42% MIT-like compound in MSE extract the SHSY5Y cell IC50 for MSE is equal to 9. M MIT-like compound. This is not dissimilar to the experimentally determined IC50 for pure MIT of 7. To assess the long-term effect of MSE on surviving cells after acute treatment a clonogenicity assay was performed after 24 hr treatment on HEK 293 and SHSY5Y cells. Additional clonogenicity assays using green vein riau kratom powder chloroform and combinations of chloroform and MSE were also carried out to determine whether potential chloroform contamination
of MSE could influence cytotoxicity.
Illustration of two main pathways of apoptosis extrinsic (death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondria) pathways with the final execution via caspases 3 6 and 7. This diagram was taken from Igney and Krammer (2002). Diagram showing the cross-talk of organelles during cell death. Cells can execute cell death via apoptosis or caspase- Extra Strength Kratom Horn Xl independent pathway (necrosislike PCD or apoptosis-like PCD).
The downstream or executioner caspases 3 6 and 7 play the final role in morphological manisfestation of apoptosis such as DNA condensation and fragmentation and blebbing formation as the cleavage activities of these caspases change the cytoskeletal structures DNA repair proteins and destroy the cellular function (Thonberry and Lazebnik 1998; Mancini et al 1998; Ghobrial et al 2005). Caspases- independent pathway Caspases are well known as the final executioner for apoptosis events. However recently there is accumulating evidence that indicates that cells may commit to death via programmed fashion but may not require caspase activation. Apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) released from mitochondria as a result of changes in membrane permeability due to activation of Bcl-2 family is known to be involved in the intrinsic pathway of kratom on drug test apoptosis.